The Portuguese, Dutch, and Spanish were able retain fragments of their empires, but the English and French dominated the scene after 1700, and the other powers were reduced to gnawing on the bones of their former glory. The imperial jockeying during the 1600s, with constantly shifting alliances and endless wars, can make a reader dizzy, and this essay's point is charting the American Empire's development, so it will begin focusing on the imperial powers and North America, and especially the USA's parent, England.


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