Funding from a Forensic Sciences Foundation Lucas Grant and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Pathology/Biology Section was used to continue this research. We are currently investigating a different analytical technique for elemental analysis: ICP-optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Although less sensitive, ICP-OES is more widely available and has lower running costs than ICP-MS and as a result, may be more accessible to a forensic science laboratory. As part of this investigation, we are using ICP-OES and ICP-MS to determine elemental differences in residue as a function of both bullet type and firing distance.


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