A second step in determining if EF deficits are heritable and linked to the same genes as ADHD is to study the EF performance in relatives of ADHD patients. This sheds light on the familiality of EF deficits in ADHD. Siblings, for instance, share on average 50% of their genes. It is therefore likely that non-affected siblings of a child with ADHD carry risk genes for ADHD without having the phenotypic expression of ADHD. If EF deficits are indeed familially linked to ADHD, non-affected siblings will show the same EF deficits, probably to a somewhat lesser extent, than their ADHD affected siblings.


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