The German lawyer Gregor of Heimburg spoke against the crusade, and he had appealed the sentence of excommunication against the Duke of Tyrol to a general council on August 13, 1460. Gregor was also excommunicated, and Pius got the city of Nuremberg to expel him. Archbishop Diether of Mainz also advocated the conciliar system and was deposed in 1461. In July of that year Pius declared Caterina of Siena a saint. In October he persuaded Louis XI of France to renounce the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges; but when Pius did not support the French claim to Naples, Louis revived the Sanction. The papal secretary Flavio Bondio pioneered archaeology and pleased Pius by completing his encyclopedic in 1458. Flavio’s was the first history that described the decline of Rome and the history of Italy in three phases from 410 to 1442.


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