Implicit in the answer above is Berkeley's insightful account ofscientific explanation and the aims of science. A bit of background isneeded here to see why this issue posed a special challenge forBerkeley. One traditional understanding of science, derived fromAristotle, held that it aims at identifying the causes ofthings. Modern natural philosophers such as Descartes narrowedscience's domain to efficient causes and thus held thatscience should reveal the efficient causes of natural things,processes, and events.[] Berkeley considers this as the source of an objection at Principles51:


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