Cairo, the current capital of and the largest city in the Middle East and , has been a major cultural, religious and center of the , and African worlds for centuries. The year 2011 saw unprecedented civil and political upheaval in the city, as the world watched young citizens raised in poverty take over Cairo’s public streets demanding a change in the country’s 30-year political dictatorship. The city covers about 175 square miles on both sides of the Nile River. Its location, where the Nile Valley of Upper Egypt and the delta of Lower Egypt meet, has served as a major passageway for water and land trade for five thousand years.


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