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The English also joined the spice trade, and in 1622 an English-Persian expedition seized Ormuz from Portugal, in present day Oman, at the mouth of the Persian Gulf. Dutch imperial supremacy did not last long. With the devastating Thirty Years’ War ending in 1648, it did not take England and the Netherlands long to begin a new series of wars; the first began in 1652, and the wars lasted until 1684. The Dutch prevailed but lost to France on the Continent. In 1664, the New Amsterdam colony in North America was lost to the English, but it had other gains. The peak of the Dutch East India Company’s supremacy was around 1669. The Dutch East India Company was a direct forerunner to modern corporations, was a combination of corporation and state, and owning shares of its stock was a lucrative proposition, for a while. The French East India Company entered the fray in 1675 with its outpost at Bombay.

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