Various post-modern critiques of these earlier feminist schools ofthought such as post-colonialism as well as deconstruction andpost-structuralism challenge the over-generalizations and economicreductionism of many of those constructing feminist theories that fallunder the early categories of liberal, radical, Marxist or socialistfeminism (cf. Grewal and Kaplan 1992; Kaplan et al. 1999; Nicholson1991; Fraser and Nicholson 1991; hooks 1984, 2000; Anzaldúa andMoraga 1981; Sandoval 2000). Others argue that part of the problem isthe master narratives of liberalism or Marxism, the first of whichsees all domination relations due to traditional hierarchies andundermined by capitalism, thus ignoring the independent effectivity ofracism (Josephs 1981); and the second of which ties all dominationrelations to the structure of contemporary capitalism and ignores thenon-capitalist economics contexts in which many women work, evenwithin so-called capitalist economies, such as housework and voluntarycommunity work (Gibson-Graham 1996).


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