Systematic narrative review methods are a hybrid method of systematic literature searching combined with syntheses and analyses. These reviews are seen to be very useful in scientific research due to the sheer volume of the literature. Traditional and/or narrative review mthods present a range of methodological concerns such as bias. Normally the personal bias of the author/s, bias in the selection of included material, and lack of clear methodology independently irreproducible, are some of the problems that can result in traditional reviews. Also, in a traditional narrative review, there may be a lack of an underlying hypothesis and/or theory presented. A ‘theory’ can refer to everything from grand theories (e.g. Marxism, realism, positivism) to hypotheses (13 levels in realistic evaluations or reviews). Theories often refer to a philosophical orientation (both as ontology and epistemology) or substantive theory in an academic area or program.


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