An effect of the Enlightenment and the social movements of the 1800s was a new kind of Jew. Marx was one of them, as were Leon Trotsky and Rosa Luxemburg. They were non-Jewish Jews, and they were a significant fraction of Jews. They saw themselves as human beings whose Jewishness was a byproduct of the social structure in their host nations. They were the Jews behind the communist movements, and they felt that when the political-social changes happened that overthrew capitalism and the social conditions it helped create, they would all become just people: no class, no ethnicity, just people. In short, they denied their Jewishness as it is commonly understood. They saw themselves as completely secularized, de-ethnicized, and highly politicized. It is a fascinating ideal, but it has not yet been attained on Earth. What happened in the Soviet Union was a grotesque caricature of attempting that ideal, mainly because it was not voluntary. They were going to force uniformity onto humanity. Banning religion altogether was part of the program. It was forced secularization and a grotesque distortion of the Enlightenment. The Bolshevik Revolution became very bloody. It became another power grab, not a realization of humanity’s unity. Yet, Jews became identified with that revolution, but when it came time to take it out on Jews, “Jewish” Jews were slaughtered, and about 70,000 Jews were murdered in the civil war that raged in the Ukraine in the 1920s. Across Eastern Europe, Jewish communities were attacked because they were associated, however inaccurately, with communism, which led to many deaths.


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